June 23 is the Anniversary of Title IX

Center for the Women of New York Celebrates the 50th Anniversary of Title IX June 23, 2022

On June 23, 1972, Title IX of the education amendments of 1972 is enacted into law. Title IX prohibits federally funded educational institutions from discriminating against students or employees based on sex. It begins: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” As a result of Title IX, any school that receives any federal money from the elementary to university level—in short, nearly all schools—must provide fair and equal treatment of the sexes in all areas, including athletics. – History

How Title IX Transformed Women’s Sports

Before Title IX, few opportunities existed for female athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which was created in 1906 to format and enforce rules in men’s football but had become the ruling body of college athletics, offered no athletic scholarships for women and held no championships for women’s teams. Furthermore, facilities, supplies and funding were lacking. As a result, in 1972 there were just 30,000 women participating in NCAA sports, as opposed to 170,000 men.

Title IX was designed to correct those imbalances. Although it did not require that women’s athletics receive the same amount of money as men’s athletics, it was designed to enforce equal access and quality. Women’s and men’s programs were required to devote the same resources to locker rooms, medical treatment, training, coaching, practice times, travel and per diem allowances, equipment, practice facilities, tutoring and recruitment. Scholarship money was to be budgeted on a commensurate basis, so that if 40 percent of a school’s athletic scholarships were awarded to men, 40 percent of the scholarship budget was also earmarked for women. – History

Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act

Title IX, also called Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, clause of the 1972 Federal Education Amendments, signed into law on June 23, 1972, which stated that “no person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” In 2002, following the death of its coauthor, U.S. Rep. Patsy Takemoto Mink, Title IX was officially renamed the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act. – Britannica

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)
Title IX at 50: Celebration Website – NCAA
Title IX Frequently Asked Questions – NCAA
National Federation of State High School Associations
Title IX Protects Students from Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity – U.S. Department of Education 
The United States Department of Justice: Title IX
Title IX Legal Manual – U.S. Department of Justice
Education & Title IX – National Women’s Law Center
The 14th Amendment and the Evolution of Title IX – United States Courts
Empowering Students to Stop Sexual Violence – Know Your IX
Exercising Your Title IX Rights – Know Your IX

Threats to Title IX – 2020 Changes to Sexual Harassment

In May 2020 the Department of Education completed the process of creating new regulations detailing how educational institutions must comply with Title IX as it relates to sexual harassment. . . . gender equity experts and those working with victims of sexual harassment have criticized the new regulations. These experts argue that the regulations will limit both the types of sexual harassment students are protected from under Title IX and the rights afforded to survivors of sexual harassment. In response to the regulations, four groups filed lawsuits against the Department of Education in an attempt to stop the regulations from going into effect. Emily Young, a Feminist Majority Foundation Intern, compiled a report analyzing both the 2020 regulations and the lawsuits against them in order to spread awareness about the impact of the new regulations and the work being done to stop their implementation. The report, titled “The 2020 Title IX Regulations and the Lawsuits Against Them: An Analysis and Comparison“, provides background on why the new regulations were created and breaks down many of the changes the new regulations make to previous Title IX policy. – Feminist Majority Foundation

More than four-in-ten women familiar with Title IX say it has not gone far enough when it comes to increasing opportunities for women in sports. – Pew Research Center

What’s at Stake in the Coming Title IX War – Institute for Family Studies